Liverworts – Division Bryophyta

Liverwort plant

Liverwort plant

Liverwort foliage with cups

Liverwort foliage with cups

Liverwort foliage

Liverwort foliage

Liverwort spore stalks

Liverwort spore stalks

Liverworts

(Division Bryophyta)
Life cycle
Mat-forming, annual spore-producing plants.
General description
Prostrate and spreading plants that often grow together to form thick mats on the surface of excessively moist soils. The foliage is not obviously differentiated into true leaves, stems or roots. Plants have rootlike rhizoids, which are not true roots but have similar functions. Small, round to crescent-shaped cups are formed on the foliage. These cups produce budlike structures that are dispersed by water to form new plants. Reproduction also occurs by spores released from palm-treelike structures. No true flowers or fruit are produced.
Foliage
Thick, dull green, ribbonlike foliage with lobed to forked margins.
Reproduction
Vegetatively and by spores.